Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
site header image

Voting Rights and Election Law: Primary Sources

Topics include the right to vote; First Amendment rights of candidates, voters, political speakers, and parties; the Voting Rights Act's and the Constitution's constraints on the drawing of district lines; and the place of money in the electoral process.


Federal agency regulations and other official agency notices are originally published, 5 days a week, in the Federal Register. The regulations are then codified in the Code of Federal Regulations where they are listed by agency. Both the Federal Register and the CFR are available free from the federal government and from publishers like Lexis and Westlaw.  See also FDsys, the next generation of Government information online.

Federal Register The official Federal Register from the U.S. Government Printing Office.

Federal Register 2.0 A test site for an improved version of the Federal Register. It is not official.

Federal Register on Lexis

Federal Register on Westlaw

Federal Register on HeinOnline (from v. 1 (1936))



Code of Federal Regulations The official CFR from the U.S. Government Printing Office.

Code of Federal Regulations on Lexis

Code of Federal Regulations on WestLaw

Code of Federal Regulations on HeinOnline (from 1938)


United States Code  The official USC from the U.S. Government Printing Office.

United States Code on Lexis

United States Code on Westlaw

United States Code on HeinOnline



Pennsylvania Statutes on Lexis

Pennsylvania Statutes on Westlaw

Cases and Court Opinions

Federal Election Commission Advisory Opinions

Select Cases from "Voting Rights and Election Law" by Michael Dimino

Lassiter v. Northampton County Board of Elections  360 U.S. 45

Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections  383 U.S. 663

Richardson v. Ramirez  418 U.S. 24 

Kramer v. Union Free School District No. 15  395 U.S. 621    

Pope v. Williams  193 U.S. 621   

Pacific States Telephone & Telegraph Co. v. Oregon  223 U.S. 118  

Baker v. Carr  369 U.S. 186   

Gray v. Sanders  372 U.S. 368   

Kirkpatrick v. Preisler  394 U.S. 526  

Gordon v. Lance  403 U.S. 1 

Allen v. State Board of Elections  393 U.S. 544 

Beer v. United States  425 U.S. 130 

Northwest Austin Municipal Utility District Number One v. Holder  129 S. Ct. 2504 

Whitcomb v. Chavis  403 U.S. 124

Thornburg v. Gingles  478 U.S. 30

Chisom v. Roemer  501 U.S. 380 

Shaw v. Reno  509 U.S. 630 

League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry  548 U.S. 399 

Grovey v. Townsend  295 U.S. 45 

Democratic Party of The United States v. Wisconsin ex rel. La Follette  450 U.S. 107 

Williams v. Rhodes  393 U.S. 23 

New Jersey Democratic Party, Inc. v. Samson  814 A.2d 1028 

U.S. Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton  514 U.S. 779

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan  376 U.S. 254 

Mills v. Alabama  384 U.S. 214 

Brown v. Socialist Worker '74 Campaign Committee  459 U.S. 87 

Meyer v. Grant  486 U.S. 414 

Kidwell v. City of Union  462 F.3d 620 

United Public Workers of America (C.I.O.) v. Mitchell  330 U.S. 75

Elrod v. Burns  427 U.S. 347 

Republican Party of Minnesota v. White  536 U.S. 765

United States v. International Union United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America  352 U.S. 567 

California Medical Association v. Federal Election Commission  453 U.S. 182 

Colorado Republican Federal Campaign Committee v. Federal Election Commission  518 U.S. 604 

First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti  435 U.S. 765

McConnell v. Federal Election Commission  540 U.S. 93 

Buckley v. Valeo  424 U.S. 1 

Crawford v. Marion County Election Board  553 U.S. 181

Burson v. Freeman  504 U.S. 191 

Bush v. Gore  531 U.S. 98

Sandusky County Democratic Party v. Blackwell  387 F.3d 565 

Bell v. Southwell  376 F.2d 659 

Ippolito v. Power  22 N.Y.2d 594 

McPherson v. Blacker  146 U.S. 1 

Wiley v. Sinkler  179 U.S. 58

Hutchinson v. Miller  797 F.2d 1279